Whole life-cycle-oriented design should define the field for infrastructure development. Included in the modeling, climate resilience should be a key part of the criteria within the life cycle analysis. As climate resilience standards and ratings are put in place, all infrastructure projects will need to be designed accordingly.

Ports, airports, rail, water, roads, bridges, power, telecom must be evaluated in terms of their climate resilience over the decades that they will be in service. McKinsey Global Institute research has estimated a trajectory of total spending of $69.4 trillion by 2035. Will these massive infrastructure investments be resilient?

What is certain is that climate change and extreme weather events are already causing widespread damage and it will get worse due to emissions already in the system, as well as those added each year. The question for communities and cities is how to rehabilitate their existing infrastructure and protect the infrastructure of the future.